As people are rapidly shifting towards renewable sources of energy, the use of the solar system is growing increasingly. Considering their monetary and environmental benefits, a range of energy applications involve the use of solar panels for energy purposes. With time, the installation of the solar systems has gotten easier and the components have also become widely available.
Basic Components of Solar System:
Solar Photovoltaic Panels:
The most obvious component of a solar system is solar panels but interestingly panels cost only 30% of the total budget. Typically, panels are made from Silicon cells, glass, a metal frame, and wiring elements. To prevent the panel from humidity and excessive heat, an insulating layer and a protective back sheet are used. The solar panels are of two types: Monocrystalline; which is one solid silicon crystal and Polycrystalline, in which different shards of silicon are melted. Both have the same purpose but different budgets and aesthetics.
Since solar energy is a direct current (DC), we use an inverter to convert it into alternating current (AC); because the commercial electrical grid requires the AC current.
Inverters come in four categories:
- Stand-alone inverters draw DC energy from solar-powered batteries without any interaction with the grid.
- Grid-tie inverters match utility current with the electrical current from solar panels. But they are not reliable as during power outages, they shut down.
- Intelligent hybrid inverters deal with grid-tie, stand-alone, or backup applications and are “all-in-one”
Racking and Mounting System:
It is the third main component of any solar system. Racking and Mounting System secures panels to a roof or the ground. In addition to this, you require them for correct positioning of the panel so that there is maximum exposure of sunlight to the panel.
Batteries store energy generated during daylight and are used at night when the system is not generating any power.
Installation of Solar System:
Often people are interested in solar but lack the knowledge about how to install it. For proper installation of the solar system, follow this procedure.
The solar panel works better at a place where there is maximum exposure to the sun. So pick a location that is most suitable in this case.
Platform Building and Mounting:
Prepare the area where you want to place modules. Use metal or aluminum rails to construct the platform and according to length and width of panels, design a mounting system.
Use junction connectors or a fuse combiner box to wire the solar modules together. To avoid accidents and power leakage, insulate the cables in a proper manner. After that, connect interior control panels with exterior wiring. The wiring stage is crucial and needs to be done very carefully.
Grounding Panels and Mounting:
Earthing and mounting panels offer protection against fire, protect other individuals from electric shock and protect solar components from lightning.
Connect the Electrical Components:
The last step in the installation is connecting all components. As wiring is already done, making connections will not be very challenging.